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Vol 24, No 4 (2020)

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Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

Antibacterial efficiency of heat treatment on teeth root canals

Daurova F.Y., Tomaeva D.I., Podkopaeva S.V., Taptun Y.A.


Aim. To determine the antibacterial efficiency of heat treatment on teeth root canals by the application of laser radiation and high-frequency diathermocoagulation in the complex curative measures.

Materials and methods. We conducted 120 experiments on the removed teeth that were first placed for 24 hours in natrium chloride isotonic solution. Depending on the type of influence being studied, remote teeth were up-diffused in three groups. The antibacterial action of the high-energy laser radiation and high-frequency diathermocoagulation were studied.

Results. During the experiment, the high antibacterial effect of monoarctic diathermocoagulation was reduced with the use of alternating current at a frequency of 2,64 Mhz in the treatment of the teeth root canals.

Conclusion. The use of diathermocoagulation increases the effectiveness of the treatment measures, which helps to reduce the number of complications and the need for repeated interventions in the treatment of dental caries complications.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):202-205
pages 202-205 views

Efficiency of cleaning dental structural polymer materials and their resistance to biofouling

Khafizova F.A., Mirgazizov R.M., Khafizov I.R., Ulyanov Y.A.


Aim. The formation of biofilms, involving microorganisms from the oral cavity, on the surface of various structural dental materials was investigated. Flexistron Plus, Dentalos Plus, and PEEK are used in dental orthopedic practice for prosthetics.

Materials and methods. The difference in quantity depends on the structure and type of plastics, as well as on their mechanical cleaning. All the plastic samples were obtained using atomic force microscopy, which made it possible to detect differences in the microstructure and microrelief of all the types of plastics and to demonstrate bacterial growth on plastics before and after the mechanical cleaning of their surfaces with a toothbrush.

Conclusion. The revealed facts of increased microbial contamination after the mechanical treatment of the surface of polymer materials suggest the need for additional lining with harder materials or the creation of new composites based on these polymers with high hygienic adequacy.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):206-210
pages 206-210 views

Clinical Investigation

Interdisciplinary approach to the rehabilitation of patients with temporoman-dibular joint abnormality, and a need for complete dental reconstruction: out-comes

Dzalaeva F.K., Chikunov S.O., Utyuzh A.S., Mikhailova M.V., Budunova M.K.


Background. This study aimed to improve the clinical effect of dental orthopedic treatment for patients who need a complete dental reconstruction, by making use of the temporomandibular joint characteristics.

Materials and Methods. A total of 647 patients with adentia who needed a complete dental reconstruction were exposed to a comprehensive examination and treatment. Patients were divided into 3 groups: orthopedic rehabilitation group (218 patients), interdisciplinary rehabilitation group (195 patients), and multidisciplinary rehabilitation group (234 patients). The follow-up period was 7 years.

Results. After the proposed rehabilitation approach, patients in the main group demonstrated an improvement in the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) score, which was significantly smaller with respect to that in the comparison groups. The frequency of clicking and pain during chewing as well as soreness sensations in this group decreased at a significantly lower pace compared to that in the comparison groups.

Conclusions. Dental reconstruction procedures aimed at restoring the shape of the teeth should focus on pain relief and temporomandibular joint function correction. The most important stage in implementing this approach is a complete and consistent examination of patients who need dental reconstruction.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):211-218
pages 211-218 views

Chronic periodontitis and ischemic heart disease: morphofunctional relation-ships

Eremin A.V., Lepilin A.V., Lipatova T.E., Kvetnoy I.M.


The relationship between periodontal diseases and cardiovascular pathology is actively being studied. The clinical significance of tissue markers of endothelial dysfunction in acute or chronic periodontitis needs to be clarified.

Materials and methods. The results of the examination of 65 patients with chronic generalized periodontitis (CP), 35 patients with chronic coronary heart disease (CHD), and 35 patients with combined pathology including CHD and CP were presented. Clinical instrumental examination, assessment of the functional state of the endothelium, immunohistochemical, and morphometric studies were performed.

Results. Patients with moderate CP were characterized by functional changes in the endothelium, decreased expression of the vasodilating factor (e-NO-synthase), and endothelial progenitor cells (CD34+cells) in the vascular wall. In patients with CHD without periodontitis, there was also a decrease in the expression and optical density of endothelial NO-synthase and endothelial progenitor cell in the periodontal vessels.

Conclusion. Apparently, changes in the expression of endothelial NO-synthase and endothelial progenitor cells (CD34+cells) in the vascular wall are generalized, and the gum can serve as a promising material for the early assessment of endothelial dysfunction.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):219-224
pages 219-224 views

Dynamics of hygienic and periodontal indices at the stages of implantological treatment

Ivanov A.S., Sakaeva Z.U., Morozov D.I., Martynov D.V., Salamov M.Y., Olesov E.E., Olesova E.A.


The level of oral hygiene among many patients with implants is insufficient. In the absence of clinical examination and occupational hygiene, there is an averagely frequent development of inflammation in peri-implant tissues—peri-implantitis, which can cause implant disintegration. It is necessary to control hygiene indicators at the different stages of implantation.

Objective: to analyze changes in hygiene and periodontal parameters during implant treatment.

Materials and methods: At the stages before implantation, during osseointegration and the year after prosthetics on implants, the hygiene indicators and periodontal and microbiota status of 60 patients with dental implants were analyzed. Control methods used include Oral Hygiene Index Green J.C., Vermillion J.R. (OHI-S); gingivitis index Loe H., Silness J. (GI); Muhllemann index modified by Cowell; and PMA index modified by Parma. The level of halitosis was determined using the organoleptic index and the Halimeter instrument. Molecular genetic diagnosis of periodontopathogenic bacteria in the periodontal and peri-implant space was carried out.

Results: Hygiene and periodontics after preimplantation tooth restoration, and periodontal deterioration by the time the implants open, then before replacing the temporary prostheses with permanent ones and after three months of functioning of the prostheses on the implants, which necessitates professional oral hygiene before these stages.

Conclusion. Occupational hygiene every three months provides a stable adequate level of hygienic and periodontal indicators for users of prostheses on implants, and also reduces the detection of peri-implantitis.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):225-228
pages 225-228 views

Example of managing a patient with a complex retention (analysis of a clinical case)

Meshalkina I.V., Tkachenko T.B.


Tooth retention is a fairly common orthodontic anomaly. Of all the retained teeth, canines are most commonly involved. There are several approaches to treating retention, including displacement and removal. When choosing treatment strategies, localization of the retained tooth is of great importance. In this report, we sought to present an example of the removal of one of such difficult-retained teeth.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):229-232
pages 229-232 views

Experience with the use of collagen materials in surgical dentistry

Muzikin M.I., Mishchuk D.Y., Levin S.A., Iordanishvili A.K.


The article presents comparative data from a clinical study on the healing of jaw bone wounds in patients with various dental diseases. Postoperative deficiency in healing after surgery took place under a blood clot, in the presence of a modern optimizer for bone regeneration, based on type 1 xenocollagen, as well as its combination with autologous blood products. A comparison of the treatment results when filling the bone defects after removing the extracted teeth is shown; filling cavities after cystectomy, including with resection of the apex of the root, and filling the material with alveoli to prevent post-extraction atrophy. The article presents generalized data on the use of xenocollagen type 1 and clinical cases. The combined use of platelet-rich fibrin with collagen biomaterials makes the use of type 1 xenocollagen in the form of crumbs in clinical practice more convenient. The plasticity and higher rate of solidification of such a graft allow it to be used in bone cavities of any size, and for all types of dental procedures.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):233-239
pages 233-239 views

Interdisciplinary approach to the rehabilitation of patients with a need for complete dental reconstruction: a clinical case

Utyuzh A.S., Dzalaeva F.К., Chikunov S.O., Mikhailova M.V., Budunova M.K.


This study aimed to test the algorithm of complex clinical, functional, and instrumental analysis in the context of treatment for patients with a need of complete dental reconstruction.

Materials and methods. A rehabilitation program for patients with adentia was proposed, which was based on the objective examination data obtained comprehensively with multiple diagnostic methods. Particular attention was paid to the temporomandibular joint function and symptoms of maxillofacial muscle abnormalities.

Results. The clinical case report covers the results of the examination and treatment of a patient who previously received implants in one of the clinics without an appropriate examination and an operating template. A set of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures was defined that included clinical, functional, and instrumental analysis of condylographic and cephalometric data. The outcomes from treatment and rehabilitation allowed the optimal occlusal load distribution, and the oral hygiene improved. The approach that was used here enabled a timely correction of functional and esthetic disorders.

Conclusions. The algorithm to treat patients who need complete dental reconstruction should include asking the medical history, clinical instrumental analysis (condylography), recording and evaluating the static and dynamic occlusal characteristics, and assessing cephalometric and esthetic characteristics. The algorithm is anatomically and pathogenetically justified, since it takes into account all alterations and interconnections between dentofacial structures and other body systems that underlie the clinical manifestations in patients with adentia who have a need for complete dental reconstruction.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):240-246
pages 240-246 views

Evaluation of the esthetic results of dental restoration using the interdisciplinary approach to orthopedic rehabilitation of patients with aedentia

Yumashev A.V., Dzalaeva F.K., Chikunov S.O., Utyuzh A.S., Dzhagaeva Z.K.


Objective. To study the dynamics of esthetic indicators during orthopedic dental treatment of patients requiring full-mouth rehabilitation.

Materials and methods. Within the study, an examination and treatment of 647 patients with adentia requiring full-mouth rehabilitation were carried out. Patients were divided into three groups. In the first group (218 people), the treatment with standard orthopedic dentistry techniques was performed. The medical care of the second group (195 people) included only several elements of the multidisciplinary approach, while for the third group (234 people), only the interdisciplinary approach was applied. The monitoring of involved patients was carried out for seven years.

Results. The application of the developed integrated multidisciplinary approach to orthopedic rehabilitation contributes to the fact that patients with adentia have a more favorable dynamics of esthetic indicators in relation to those who underwent a standard complex of treatment and rehabilitation measures. Thus, a statistically significant decrease was noted in the number of patients with the vertical shift of the smile line; smile asymmetry; gingival displacement; the impaired position of the incisors and fangs; mispronunciation of F and S sounds; inaccurate buccal tube placement; negative changes in the visualization of central incisors under the red border of the lips; differences in the size of the upper and lower central incisors; inadequate proximal contacts; and the inclination of the lower incisors.

Conclusions. The use of an interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of patients with adentia requiring full-mouth rehabilitation contributes to the constant improvement of aesthetic characteristics of the maxillofacial area.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):247-255
pages 247-255 views

Organization of Healthcare Service

Assessment of the capabilities of orthopedic departments of medical organizations to implement modern technologies

Gvetadze R.S., Butova V.G., Timofeev D.E., Andreeva S.N.


The study showed the presence of negative dynamics in the provision of the population with orthopedic dentists and dental technicians, as well as a decrease in the staffing of medical organizations with these specialists. The fact of exceeding the basic rate of loss of dental technicians over the same indicator for dentists-orthopedists by 2 times was established. Since the coefficient of concurrency among dentists-orthopedists and dental technicians is less than the average for the specialty, the possibility of increasing the availability of personnel by combining positions is revealed. The trends of decreasing interest of specialists in obtaining qualification categories are noted. According to the survey of 305 specialists, a model of the most probable structural “profile” of a dentist-orthopedist was created and the characteristic features of the learning processes and practical use of knowledge on the main new technologies in orthopedic dentistry were determined. There are limited opportunities to improve the availability and quality of dental orthopedic care and the introduction of new prosthetics technologies as indicated by the data obtained in the course of the study.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):256-261
pages 256-261 views

The main reasons for applying to the courts of patients who received orthodontic care in Saint Petersburg (retrospective analysis)

Tkachenko T.B., Garipova Y.D.


This article presents a retrospective analysis regarding the reasons for patients to undergo a forensic examination, while receiving orthodontic treatment in Saint Petersburg. The number of forensic examinations in orthodontics among all the dental complaints over the past decade has been determined, and the structure of these complaints and the conclusions of the expert commission have also been studied.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):262-265
pages 262-265 views


Is temporomandibular disfunction an occupational disease of flautists?

Parunov V.A., Fedotova T.M., Lebedenko I.Y.


Wind instrumentalists are prone to a number of occupational hazards that can lead to occupational diseases. C. Zaza defined these diseases as playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD). Such occupational diseases are devastating for musicians in terms of psychological health and financial state.

According to various epidemiological studies, 62–86% of orchestra musicians experienced PRMD. Particularly the pressure of the mouthpiece on the lower incisors of wind instrumentalists leads to their movement and provoke periodontal diseases. Moreover, wind instrumentalists place themselves at risk of allergies and galvanism. Musicians do not seek for dental help due to the fear of spoiled embouchure (habitual position of the cheeks, tongue, and lips while playing) in spite of the range of specific oral pathologies. Flautists are of particular interest to dental practitioners because they are subjected to several risk factors; in addition to the mouthpiece pressure, they often hold instruments in an asymmetric posture, and in constrained spaces, being surrounded by the other orchestra musicians.

To learn more about the occupational hazards of flautists, we searched for the relevant literature in the central research medical library and for articles in databases eLIBRARY, PubMed, and ResearchGate using the following keywords: “wind instrumentalists”, “flute”, “temporomandibular disorders”, and “playing-related musculoskeletal disorders”.

Some studies claim that the asymmetric posture of flautist, especially in cramped conditions, affects the musician’s health and leads to PRMD. Nevertheless, this research topic has been neglected, and published studies lack a strong methodology, explaining why they fail to show a strong association between TMD and flute playing. Therefore, further research is needed.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):266-272
pages 266-272 views

Application of hirudotherapy in the complex treatment of periodontal diseases

Abdullayeva A.I., Bozhedomov A.Y., Pustovaya E.P., Slonova V.M., Karnaeva A.S., Kozhevnikova L.A.


This article reviews research data on the etiology, pathogenesis, and features of inflammatory periodontal diseases, the possibilities of using hirudotherapy to treat this group of diseases, and the mechanisms of action of this method. The literature search was conducted using the databases Scopus, Web of Science, MedLine, and Global Health. The mechanisms by which medical leeches influence the human body were analyzed.

It is known that the progression of inflammatory periodontal diseases depends on risk factors such as age, smoking, gender, socio-economic factors, and some systemic diseases. The main features of chronic and acute periodontitis are periodontal pockets accompanying the loss of bone mass and attachment of the tooth to the alveolar process, which occur unevenly throughout the dentition. The decisive factor in inflammatory periodontal diseases is the presence of microorganisms. Hirudotherapy is a treatment method using the medical leech Hirudo medicinalis. In their secretion, leeches have more than 20 bioactive molecules with various effects. Their therapeutic mechanisms include six subtypes: a decrease in the content of cellular elements and neutrophils in mixed saliva, normalization of the microflora of the periodontal pocket, and an increase in the number of lactobacilli. The treatment method using leeches leads to a decrease in the depth of the periodontal pockets, normalization of the periodontal index, and tooth mobility. Hirudotherapy leads to a noticeable improvement in the clinical condition of periodontal tissues, is convenient to perform, affordable, and can be recommended for use in the practice of periodontists.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):273-277
pages 273-277 views

On the issue of composite materials

Bait Said O.M., Razumova S.V., Velichko E.V.


Caries is the pathological process of hard tissue demineralization in teeth caused by various factors. As a result, necrotic areas within the tooth are formed that require removal and subsequent reconstruction in order to re-establish tooth function. This is achieved by replacing the demineralized areas with dental filling materials. With a wide variety of available dental filling materials, the dentist is faced with the task of choosing the correct material depending on the nature of the lesion. To date, the most widely used permanent filling materials are composites, which constitute one of the largest groups of filling materials. They gained their popularity due to their numerous good qualities, and the continuous research within the field of dental materials enables further improvement of their properties. Currently, a new composite has appeared in dentistry, which helps to neutralize the salivary pH during acidosis, thereby preventing the development of dental caries

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2020;24(4):278-282
pages 278-282 views

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