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Vol 25, No 1 (2021)

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Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

Microstructural analysis of the surface of implants removed in connection with periimplantitis

Ivanov A.S., Maksyukov S.Y., Olesova V.N., Salamov M.Y., Martynov D.V., Olesov E.E.


BACKGROUND: The practice of prosthetics on implants shows a fairly high percentage of removed implants over the specified period. The reasons can be both insufficient hygiene of the tissues around the implants and their overload. Regardless of the cause, bone resorption occurs from the apex of the alveolar ridge (part) of the jaw deep into contact with the implant in combination with chronic inflammation of the periimplant soft tissues. Removal of the implant in such cases is indicated for bone resorption at half the length of the implant. Microstructural analysis of the surface of implants is rarely reflected in publications, since high-resolution microscopy is only possible for removed implants.

AIM: Microscopy and spectrometry of the surface of implants removed for periimplantitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surface analysis of the five implants removed due to periimplantitis was carried out by scanning electron microscopy in high vacuum mode with electron probe microprobe analysis of the elemental composition. A FEI Teneo VolumeScope single-beam scanning electron microscope with a detector was used to perform XFlash 6/30 energy dispersive analysis. The research was carried out in the Skolkovo Technopark.

RESULTS: The performed microscopic and spectrometric analysis, accompanied by micrographs and spectrograms of the cervical part of the implant in the area of bone tissue conservation, the presence of connective tissue and in the area of the exposed surface of the implant, demonstrate the process of disintegration of the implant due to periimplantitis, which consists in demineralization and resorption of bone tissue (in places up to the surface of the implant, in places with through defects to the surface of the implant) and its replacement with connective tissue.

CONCLUSIONS: Disintegration of the implant due to periimplantitis is accompanied by the process of demineralization and resorption of bone tissue (in places up to the surface of the implant, in places with through defects to the surface of the implant) and its replacement with connective tissue.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):5-11
pages 5-11 views

Experimental evaluation of the chemical composition of dental cement in adults

Malina M.S., Tytyuk S.Y., Iordanishvili A.K.


BACKGROUND: Information about the chemical composition of tooth root cement is limited, although it can contribute to clarifying the mechanisms of tooth root surface caries development and in improving methods of its treatment and prevention.

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of cement in intact teeth and in teeth with root caries in adults of different age groups.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The average Ca, P, and Ca/P-coefficient in the cement of the intact teeth and in the caries of the root was obtained, and a tendency toward a decrease in the total mineralization of the cement in the caries of the root was also found.

RESULTS: In adults experiencing hyperesthesia of hard dental tissues, regardless of age and sex, the morphological picture is similar and is determined by pathological changes of carious and non-carious origin in tooth tissues that cause hyperesthesia.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and severe hyperesthesia of the hard tissues of the adult teeth results in a decrease in the level of mineralization in the enamel, dentin, as well as in cement relative to the intact teeth.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):12-16
pages 12-16 views

Clinical Investigation

Dental health of civil aviation flight personnel

Iordanishvili A.K.


BACKGROUND: Preservation and strengthening of the health of civil aviation flight personnel is an extremely urgent problem and is associated with ensuring flight safety.

AIM: This study aimed to determine the structure and analyze the organs and tissues of the masticatory apparatus among civil aviation flight personnel.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the incidence and intensity of main dental diseases and the morbidity structure of organs and tissues of the masticatory apparatus in civil aviation pilots, an in-depth examination was carried out in 120 men aged 25–45 years (study group 1) working on various modern passenger and transport aircrafts. The duration of flight operations ranged from 2 to 17 years, with a total flight duration of 140 to 5580 h. The comparison group consisted of 146 men (aged 25–45 years) of non-flying specialties (study group 2). The generally accepted methods for assessing the prevalence and intensity of the course of major dental diseases were used.

RESULTS: The incidence and intensity of dental disorders, periodontal disease, temporomandibular joint disorders, and parafunctions of the masticatory muscles were defined. The incidence and intensity of major dental diseases among civil aviation flight personnel were clearly directly proportional to their flight time (r=0.547) and duration of work in civil aviation (r=0.482) but to a lesser extent to their age (r=0.416).

CONCLUSIONS: Non-carious lesions of the teeth, inflammatory and dystrophic diseases of the periodontal and oral mucosa, painful dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, and bruxism are more common among civil aviation flight personnel than among non-flying personnel, which is due to the unfavorable effect of air flight factors on organs and tissues of the mastication apparatus and the body of the pilots as a whole.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):17-22
pages 17-22 views

Indicators of dental incidence in older populations

Kozhokar A.S., Kuznetsov S.V., Podkhvatilina A.S., Bratus A.E., Paramonov Y.O., Paramonova I.A.


BACKGROUND: The study of dental problems characteristic of geriatric patients is becoming increasingly relevant. As a person ages, the entire dental system undergoes physiological and functional changes. To eliminate the adverse effects of oral diseases, prolong the period of remission, preventive measures, constant monitoring of the level of hygiene, dispensary supervision of elderly and senile persons are necessary.

AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in the following older age groups: young elderly (65–74 years old), old elderly (75–84 years old), and very old elderly (85 years old and older).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A dental examination of 183 patients was carried out using a modified card for assessing the state of the dental status, according to guidelines of the World Health Organization.

RESULTS: Analysis of dental morbidity in the older age group showed that the most common dental diseases in this group were extractions of lossened teeth caused by caries and periodontal diseases. Following a comprehensive dental examination of elderly patients and people with senility, the intensity of KPU and OHI-S was 19.76±0.52 and 2.71±0.12, respec-tively, and this indicates the poor hygienic state of the oral cavity of this population.

CONCLUSION: Data support the untimeliness and inadequacy of dental care in elderly patients and people with senility. This necessitates the development of special treatment and prophylactic programs for this population, aimed at reducing dental morbidity.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):23-28
pages 23-28 views

Expression of saliva biomarkers in patients with squamous cell carcinoma in various regions of the oral mucosa

Kochurova E.V., Nikolenko V.N., Panferova O.I., Izhnina E.V., Kudasova E.O., Yumashev A.V., Mikhailova M.V.


BACKGROUND: Oral fluid as a means for early detection and differential diagnosis of diseases of the oral mucosa and for assessing the overall somatic status of the body attracts the attention of researchers due to the non-invasiveness of material sampling and the exclusion of risks possible during blood analysis, as well as a simpler, compared with blood samples, material storage regime.

AIM: The study aimed to evaluate the levels of oral fluid biomarkers of 170 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa (RCC-MOP) depending on the localization of the oncopathology.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed the levels of oral fluid biomarkers of 170 patients with RCC-MOP depending on the localization of oncopathology. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 8, and 9, as well as their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) 1 and 2, were chosen as biomarkers. For a comparative analysis, lesions of the tongue, cheek, floor of the oral cavity, alveolar ridge of the jaw, and oropharynx were selected.

RESULTS: The study showed significant differences in the biomarker levels in the localization of squamous cell carcinoma in different parts of the oral mucosa.

CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the expression of oral fluid biomarkers with RCC-MOP revealed a link between the localization of the oncopathology and the level of synthesized biomarkers. The peak values of MMPs in the lesions of the tongue and floor of the oral cavity may be associated with the high number of salivary glands in these anatomical areas. The expression level is influenced by a number of factors, such as the localization of the pathological process, dental status, age, gender, and general condition of the patient.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):29-34
pages 29-34 views

Comparison of the effectiveness of Trioxident and Сanal Mineral Trioxide agregate for capping perforations in the pulp cavity

Lipetskaya E.A., Furtsev T.V.


BACKGROUND: The modern trend of dentistry is the principle of minimal invasiveness. Preservation of the vitality of the tooth is an actual principle of operation. In the treatment of deep caries or pulpitis by a biological method, the pulp chamber is often opened. Even with bleeding, there is a chance to leave the tooth vital. After hemostasis, antibacterial treatment of the carious cavity and padding were performed. Domestic manufacturers offer two analogues for these purposes — "Trioxident" and "Kanal MTA”.

AIM: The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of domestic materials "Trioxident" and "Kanal MTA" when used as a therapeutic and insulating coating of pulp.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 27 clinical cases were analyzed in patients aged 23–35 with a diagnosis of "deep dentine caries" K02.2 (according to ICD-10) of molars and premolars of the upper and lower jaws. All clinical cases combined patients' complaints of intermittent aching pains, the depth of carious cavities and the opened tooth cavity at one point. The patients were divided into two groups, in each of which the following stages of diagnosis and treatment were carried out. Diagnostics was carried out before the start of work and during examination after 7 days, 6, 12, 18 months. The stages of caries treatment were the same, only the materials for closing the perforations differed: in group 1 — "Trioxidant", in group 2 — "Kanal MTA".

RESULTS: It is noted that the use of materials "Trioxident" and "Kanal MTA" is an effective choice for closing perforations of the pulp chamber in the treatment of deep caries and chronic pulpitis. Pain was absent in 30.8% and 42.1% of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively. After 6, 12, 18 months, patients did not complain about the treated teeth, the cold test was positive for a short time in 26 cases, the average current at electroodontodiagnostic (minimum value 4, maximum value 8) was 5.6 µA, 25 restorations had an Alpha rating according to Ryge criteria, in one case in group 1, the tooth crown darkened pointwise from the vestibular surface.

CONCLUSION: The materials "Trioxident" and "Kanal MTA" are recommended for use in the biological method of pulpitis treatment. They have therapeutic potential to cover the pulp and are competitive in relation to the foreign equivalent of "MTA Prorut", which gives them an economic advantage in providing dental care within the framework of compulsory medical insurance.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):35-41
pages 35-41 views

Study of the influence of different methods of application of Metrogyl Denta gel on the microbiota of periodontal pockets in periodontitis

Morozov D.I., Volkov A.G., Olesov E.E., Dikopova N.Z., Trefilova Y.A.


BACKGROUND: One of the most popular antibacterial drugs used in periodontology is Metrogil Denta gel. In recent years, it is most often prescribed as a means of local antibacterial therapy. However, there is practically no information about the use of Metrogil Denta gel ultraphonophoresis in the treatment of periodontal tissue diseases. Therefore, the development of the Metrogil Denta gel ultraphonophoresis technique and the study of its effectiveness in inflammatory periodontal diseases has significant theoretical and practical interest.

AIM: This study aimed to explore the influence of various methods of using Metrogyl Denta gel on the microbiota of the periodontal pockets in periodontitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first group (main), composed of 20 patients with a diagnosis of moderate periodontitis, the treatment procedures included high-frequency ultrasound and application of antibacterial preparation of Metrogyl Denta gel for the periodontal tissue (ultraphonophoresis of Metrogyl Denta gel). In the second group (control), composed of 20 patients with a diagnosis of moderate periodontitis, phonophoresis was not prescribed, and Metrogyl Denta gel was applied into the surface of the gums of the upper and lower jaw two times a day for 10 days.

RESULTS: Contents of the pathological periodontal pockets were examined twice: first after dental plaque removal in patients with periodontitis of the main and control groups and then after 10 ultraphonophoresis procedures using Metrogyl Denta gel as a contact medium in the study group or after 10 days of Metrogyl Denta gel applications in the control group. Data analysis revealed that ultraphonophoresis of Metrogyl Denta gel has a more pronounced antibacterial effect in comparison with the injection of this drug.

CONCLUSIONS: The combined effect of high-frequency ultrasound and Metrogyl Denta gel makes it possible to create a drug reserve in the periodontal tissues.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):42-47
pages 42-47 views

Determination of the minimum suppressing concentration to metronidazole in representatives of obligate and optional anaerobic microflora of periodontal pockets

Olesov E.E., Morozov D.I., Volkov A.G., Dikopova N.Z., Ponomareva A.G.


BACKGROUND: Due to the long period of use of metronidazole in medical dental practice, today it is relevant to study the sensitivity and the minimum inhibitory concentration of reference and clinical strains of obligate anaerobic microbiota to metronidazole in periodontitis.

AIM: Determination of sensitivity and minimum suppressive concentration of reference and clinical strains of obligate anaerobic microbiota to metronidazole in periodontitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Strains of obligate anaerobic microbiota of periodontal pockets with moderate periodonitis were isolated from 30 patients. The study was carried out by the cassette micromethod, which is a modification of the method for determining the sensitivity by serial dilution in a dense agar medium.

RESULTS: As a result of the study, it was found that many of the microbes found in periodontal pockets have a relatively low sensitivity to metronidazole (MIC from 4 to 12 μg / ml). This circumstance is obviously due to the fact that this antibacterial chemotherapy drug has been used for a long time in periodontal practice.

CONCLUSIONS: In this regard, in order to increase the effectiveness of local antibacterial therapy, this chemotherapy drug must be combined with antiseptics that have a pronounced antibacterial effect against periodontal pathogenic microflora, for example, Metrogyl Dent gel, containing, along with metronidazole, the antiseptic chlorhexidine, as well as the use of physical hardware methods of exposure to create significant the concentration of the antibacterial drug in the mucous membrane and in the contents of periodontal pockets, which can be done using phonophoresis.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):54-58
pages 54-58 views

Clinical efficiency of ultraphonophoresis of Metrogyl Denta gel in mild periodontitis

Volkov A.G., Morozov D.I., Dikopova N.Z., Olesov E.E., Sinyakov A.I.


BACKGROUND: Periodontal diseases are one of the most common in dentistry. Along with the complications of caries, periodontitis is one of the causes of tooth loss. In the etiology of this disease, the leading role is played by the microbial factor, as well as microcirculatory disorders in periodontal tissues. The complex mechanism of periodontitis development involves a comprehensive treatment approach aimed at different links in the pathogenesis of the development of this disease. Among the numerous physical factors used in the treatment of periodontal diseases, ultraphonophoresis, which combines the effects of ultrasound and a medicinal substance, is not widely used. The study of the effectiveness of the use of Metrogil Denta gel ultraphonophoresis in the treatment of inflammatory periodontal diseases is of considerable scientific and practical interest.

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effect of ultraphonophoresis of gel on the clinical course of chronic generalized periodontitis of moderate severity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients (aged 31–62) with chronic generalized periodontitis of moderate severity were examined and treated. In the main group (n=30), treatment included high-frequency ultrasound and antibacterial preparation of Metrogyl Denta gel applied to the periodontal tissue (ultraphonophoresis of Metrogyl Denta gel). In the control group (n=30 patients), Metrogyl Denta gel was injected into the periodontal tissue.

RESULTS: Application of Metrogyl Denta gel for moderate periodontitis did not improve local blood circulation. Six months after treatment, nearly half of the examined patients showed signs of inflammation, which was accompanied by a worsening of periodontal index (PI), Schiller–Pisarev tests results, and rheography finding. Twelve months after treatment, 63% of the patients developed complications.

CONCLUSIONS: There was further deterioration in the clinical and functional parameters. After ultraphonophoresis of Metrogyl Denta gel, there was a decrease in the readings of the Schiller–Pisarev test, PI, and normalization of the qualitative and quantitative indicators of the rheoparodontogram, which indicated a decrease in inflammation and activation of local blood circulation in the periodontium. In the long term after treatment, despite the increase in hygiene index, the relative stability of clinical and functional parameters was maintained. Even a year after treatment, the level of indicators did not reach the level obtained before treatment.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):48-53
pages 48-53 views

Evaluation of the influence of sports loads on the maxillofacial area of cheerleaders

Sevbitov A.V., Zyulkina L.A., Teplova A.V., Dorofeev A.E., Yershov K.A., Sevbitov A.A.


BACKGROUND: At the moment, it has not been sufficiently studied what effect physical exercises with weights have on the condition of the hard tissues of the teeth, periodontal and temporomandibular joint.

AIM: Study the effect of serious sports loads on individual organs and tissues of the human body, including dental health.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical examination and questionnaire survey of 60 cheerleader athletes were conducted. The criteria for inclusion in the study were the age from 15 to 27 years, constant cheerleading training for more than 6 months, and the presence of voluntary informed consent. Exclusion criteria: age less than 15 years and older than 27 years, constant cheerleading training for less than 6 months, refusal to participate in the survey. The patients were divided into two equal groups: Group 1 — college cheerleader athletes; Group 2 — university cheerleader athletes. The groups were divided into three subgroups: 1st subgroup — engaged in cheerleading from 6 months to 1 year; 2nd subgroup — from 1 year to 2 years; 3rd subgroup — more than 2 years. When filling out the questionnaire, patients were asked the question: “Do you use any means for the prevention and prevention of pathological diseases of the oral cavity?”. During the examination of the oral cavity, the degree of tooth abrasion, tongue damage and pathological changes in the temporomandibular joint were assessed.

RESULTS: The results show that the preventive dental activity of patients was low. Most of the respondents had no basic ideas about the prevention of pathological changes in the oral cavity during cheerleading.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study show that the preventive dental activity of the participants was low. Thus, there is a need to develop tools and materials for the effective prevention of tooth abrasion, tongue damage, and pathological changes in the temporomandibular joint.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):59-64
pages 59-64 views

Help a Practical Doctor

Decompression drainage (marsupialization) in the treatment of extensive jaw cysts

Muzikin M.I., Golovko A.A., Melnikov M.V., Iordanishvili A.K., Ratnikov V.A.


Odontogenic cysts of the jaw are one of the most common diseases of the maxillofacial region, the main methods of treatment of which are cystotomy and cystectomy. Despite the widespread use of these surgical methods of treatment — they are not without drawbacks. The presented clinical material shows the possibility of treating a patient with a large cavity formation of the jaw body by decompression drainage (marsupialization). The proposed surgical manual can be used either in isolation (the main method of treatment), or in combination with subsequent cystectomy. In modern domestic and foreign literature, publications devoted to this method of treatment of large and giant jaw cysts are rare, and therefore this clinical observation is presented.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):65-72
pages 65-72 views

Organization of Healthcare Service

Investigation of the quality of life of patients with dental conditions: medical and social aspects

Aivazov G.T., Fomina A.V.


Problems on the quality of life of patients with diseases of the dentoalveolar apparatus are focused on medical and social aspects. Quality of life studies allow learning not only of the well-being of the patients but also of the disadvantages of various medical interventions in the field of dentistry. Depending on the scope of application, the concept of the “quality of life” can combine different categories and even systems. Dentistry occupies a leading position because of the scale of morbidities, so there is a close relationship between violations in the functions of the dental apparatus and functions of all body systems. The concept of the quality of life related to oral health is quite vague, which has led to the emergence of various definitions of quality of life related to oral health. Studies of the quality of life in dentistry are carried our using specialized questionnaires in connection with periodontal diseases and adentia, and authors note a close relationship between the absence of teeth and low quality of life. This article considers and analyzes the issue of the relevance of the quality of life associated with the incidence of oral diseases using various questionnaires, including both medical and social issues.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):73-84
pages 73-84 views


Use of minimally invasive technologies in oral care in children

Abdullaeva A.I., Pustovaya E.P., Slonova V.M., Karnaeva A.S., Pilshchikova O.V., Kozhevnikova L.A., Gasanova Z.M.


This article presents a review of studies that have focused on the technology of minimally invasive caries removal, endodontic treatment, and dental restoration. Databases of Scopus, Web of Science, and MedLine were searched for relevant studies. With ongoing comprehensive investigation of various diseases, present-day medicine has changed from using a biomedical model to a biopsychosocial medical model, so increasing attention is being paid to the concept of minimally invasive treatment in dentistry. The concept of minimally invasive technology has given rise to a number of minimally invasive methods for the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases. Taking into account the psychology, health status, function, and aesthetics of the patient, minimal intervention is required. Children, as a special group of patients, are in the period of the initial formation of their psychological structure. In this regard, the goal of dental treatment of children should not be limited to restoring functions and relieving pain; it is also worth paying attention to their development and physical and mental health. Therefore, in recent years, minimally invasive technology has gradually been used in the diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases in children.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):85-90
pages 85-90 views

Application of ultrasound in the complex treatment of periodontitiss

Paramonova I.A., Volkov A.G., Dikopova N.Z., Paramonov Y.O., Akhmedbaeva S.S.


Ultrasound refers to physical factors that can have a multi-sided therapeutic effect in periodontitis. In therapeutic doses, it affects a variety of local tissue reactions, stimulates compensatory, restorative, protective and adaptive mechanisms. For ultrasound therapy modern industry offers two types of devices that are able to generate ultrasonic vibrations in a wide frequency range: low frequency (20–40 kHz) and high frequency (more than 800 kHz).The comparative study of the use of low-frequency and high-frequency ultrasound therapy in the complex of therapeutic measures for periodontitis is now of great scientific and practical interest.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(1):91-96
pages 91-96 views

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