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Vol 25, No 3 (2021)

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Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

Morphofunctional characteristics of the mucous membrane of the masticatory apparatus in experimental carcinogenesis

Rizaev J.A., Khazratov A.I., Iordanishvili A.K.


BACKGROUND: Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are often accompanied by changes in the oral cavity. This is largely due to the morphological and functional unity of the oral mucosa and the entire digestive tract. Therefore, the role of a dentist is important in early oncological alertness for detecting malignant neoplasms at an early stage of their development.

AIM: Present the results of a morphological study of the mucous membrane of the mouth of an animal during experimental carcinogenesis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 168 sexually mature outbred white male rats kept under standard vivarium conditions. The animals were divided into the following groups: control — 84 individuals and experimental — 84 animals with simulated colon adenocarcinomatosis. Every 30 days of the experiment, 12 animals were withdrawn from the control and experimental groups. Carcinogenesis was modeled by the introduction of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, previously diluted with isotonic sodium chloride solution. Using a histological study, the mucous membrane of the mouth was studied in animals of both examined groups.

RESULTS: The dynamics of morphological changes in the mucous membrane of the animal’s mouth was revealed against the background of the development of adenocarcinomatosis of the large intestine; the development of destructive-degenerative and sclerotic changes in the mucous membrane of the mouth of animals with simulated adenocarcinomatosis of the large intestine, the severity of which increased in accordance with the period of development of the neoplasm, was established.

CONCLUSION: The revealed changes in the large intestine and the mucous membrane of the animal’s mouth, caused by a simulated chemical carcinogen, indicate a high risk of developing a malignant tumor with spread to all parts of the gastrointestinal tract.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):225-231
pages 225-231 views

Clinical Investigation

Use of orthodontic treatment protocols in patients with chronic periodontitis and arterial hypertension

Eremin A.V., Lepilin A.V., Lipatova T.E.


BACKGROUND: The wide prevalence and mutual influence of periodontitis and arterial hypertension determine the importance of choosing a rational approach to denture prosthetics in this patients.

AIM: The study was to choose a rational tactics of dental prosthetics in patients with chronic periodontitis and arterial hypertension based on a clinical and instrumental assessment of the periodontal condition and morphofunctional characteristics of neuroendocrine gum cells.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The results of the examination of 120 patients with periodontitis and hypertension are presented, of which 90 patients had denture defects, 30 patients — intact dentition. Clinical examination, immunohistochemical, and morphometric studies were performed. 90 patients underwent prosthetics of dentition defects, of which: 32 patients were fitted with metal dentures, 30-metal-ceramic dentures, 28 patients were fitted with thermoplastic resin removable partial dentures.

RESULTS: Periodontitis in patients with hypertension is characterized by more significant changes in the expression of endothelin-1-, melatonin- and endothelial NO-synthase-like cells of gum, than periodontitis in patients without somatic pathology. After periodontal treatment, the use of metal-ceramic dentures and thermoplastic resin removable partial dentures by a year-long persistent remission of periodontitis in 85.7–86.7% of patients is accompanied. Remission is achieved against the background of satisfactory hygiene indicators and restoring the neurotransmitter balance of the oral cavity. After a year of metal dentures, 43.7% of patients report an exacerbation of periodontitis, which by poor hygiene and local neuroendocrine imbalance is facilitated.

CONCLUSION: The use of metal-ceramic dentures and thermoplastic resin removable partial dentures is the preferred option for prosthetics of dentition defects in patients with periodontitis and hypertension.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):233-239
pages 233-239 views

Vestibuloplasty using an apically-shifted flap in patients with edentulous mandibles

Maksimova N.V., Kalinovsky S.I., Stepantseva E.V., Ilyasov V.V.


BACKGROUND: One of the most common problems of the dental system in the residential and senile age is the complete absence of teeth. This pathology affects up to 35% of patients aged 55–70 years, and at the age of 75 years and older, more than 50% of patients have toothless jaws. A small vestibule of the oral cavity due to atrophy of the alveolar process on the lower jaw is an important reason for unsatisfactory fixation of a complete removable prosthesis, and therefore prosthetics of this group of patients is a complex clinical problem.

AIM: Study: to optimize the surgical stage of treatment during the operation of deepening the vestibule of the mouth by the method of apically displaced flap in the complete absence of teeth on the lower jaw by using the gel preparation “Emalan” (Zelenaya dubrava, Russia) based on collagen.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The results of the study of 28 patients aged 67 to 76 years with complete absence of teeth in the lower jaw, whose treatment was carried out on the basis of the dental clinic “Prime Dentistry” of Ryazan, were analyzed. The study included elderly and senile patients, according to the WHO age classification. Patients were not assigned by gender. All patients were equally divided into 2 groups.

Clinical evaluation of the early postoperative period was carried out for 10 days after surgery on the 2nd, 5th and 10th days. A verbal descriptive pain scale was used to assess the intensity of pain.

In order to control the presence of an inflammatory reaction in the postoperative period, local thermometry was performed locally using an infrared scanner.

RESULTS: Examination on the 2nd day showed that patients of both the main and comparison groups had slightly pronounced edema of the surrounding soft tissues. No increase in body temperature was recorded in both groups. Assessing the postoperative wound, on the 2nd day, all patients of the comparison group had marked hyperemia and swelling of the mucous membrane in the area of the surgical wound, and in patients of the main group such changes were detected less frequently. On the 5th day, no mucosal edema was observed in patients of the main group, and hyperemia was noted twice. In the comparison group, swelling and hyperemia of the mucous membrane in the wound area were recorded in almost half of the group. Examination of the wound defect on the 10th day showed that in the main group in all patients the wound was epithelized, whereas in the comparison group the signs of epithelization were weakly expressed. When studying the dynamics of local thermal symmetry using an IR scanner, carried out three times: on the eve of the operation, on the 2nd and 5th days after the intervention, a difference in indicators was noted between the main group and the comparison group. Patients’ assessment of the intensity of pain in the postoperative period using a verbal descriptive pain scale showed the following results. After complete cessation of anesthesia, most patients of the main group had slight discomfort in the wound area. Patients of the comparison group mainly complained of severe pain. On the 2nd day and on the 5th day after surgical intervention, some patients of the comparison group had complaints of mild pain in the wound, all other patients, including patients of the main group, had no pain.

CONCLUSION: The use of collagen-based gel preparation “Emalan” to close wound postoperative defects with open methods of deepening the vestibule of the mouth gives positive results in the healing process of the wound defect in the form of absence or significant reduction of pain syndrome, reduction of inflammatory reaction in the wound and acceleration of epithelization.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):241-245
pages 241-245 views

Help a Practical Doctor

Clinical features of prosthetic treatment in edentuluos patients

Babich V.V., Bistrova J.A.


BACKGROUND: Social adaptation of patients with complete absence of teeth is associated with fixation and stabilization of prostheses during chewing and speech. It is necessary to take into account the somatic status of the patient, the causes of tooth loss, pay attention to the clinical stages of orthopedic treatment.

AIM: Of the study is to increase the efficiency of the orthopedic dentist with full removable prosthetics.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The conditions for obtaining a compression impression are a rigid spoon, silicone impression material of medium viscosity, constant pressure at the time of impression removal. The indication for removing the compression impression is the mucous membrane of the 1st type according to the Supple. The conditions for removing decompression impressions are a perforated individual spoon, liquid-flowing impression material, no pressure on the oral mucosa. The indication for the use of decompression impressions is a thin, atrophied mucous membrane of the oral cavity of the 2nd type according to Supple. It is necessary to use functional impressions combined according to the degree of pressure on the oral mucosa. This implies the peculiarities of manufacturing a rigid base with wax rollers. After determining the central ratio of the jaws and packing the template basis with bite rollers, the doctor applies the impression material differentially to its inner surface. Both templates with bite rollers are inserted into the oral cavity, the doctor controls the central position of the lower jaw, while functional impressions are taken from the upper and lower jaws, taking into account the functional pressure of the patient’s chewing muscles. This will allow you to evenly distribute the chewing pressure on the oral mucosa. The value of functional rest is determined by measuring two marked points at the base of the nose and on the chin and always exceeds the amount of separation in the state of the central ratio of the jaws by the amount of the interclusal space. Having determined the amount of functional rest, they begin to design the maxillary occlusion pattern, then note the anatomical landmarks. Often, the removal of impressions with a corrective silicone mass is performed in the position of the central ratio.

The value of functional rest is determined by a set of anatomical landmarks in a state of maximum possible muscle relaxation in combination with phonetic tests when closing the lips without tension.

RESULTS: The determination of the central ratio on rigid bases makes it possible to accurately fix the interalveolar distance. Patients adapt to prosthetic structures faster.

The use of a facial arch with an articulator significantly improves the quality of the prosthetic structure, allows you to individualize the anatomical parameters of the patient.

When determining the central ratio of the jaws, checking the design of the future prosthesis, cone-beam computed tomography of the temporomandibular joint was used to control the position of the heads of the lower jaw, confirming the correctness of the actions. At the stage of checking the design of the removable prosthesis, phonetic tests were used.

CONCLUSION: The use of combined impressions with simultaneous determination of the central ratio of the jaws and control of the position of the heads of the lower jaw can accelerate the process of orthopedic treatment (combining two stages) and adaptation to removable prostheses. To improve speech during treatment, it is necessary to use special phonetic tests that allow you to restore the correct ratio between the jaws, find the optimal position of artificial teeth, determine the boundaries and shape of the basis of the prosthesis and design the optimal prosthesis for each patient.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):247-252
pages 247-252 views

Organization of Healthcare Service

Specialist program training for dentists: an analysis of the teachers’ opinions

Iordanishvili A.K.


BACKGROUND: In the context of public health, high-quality training of dental professionals is essential for improvement of the provision of dental care in the cities and rural areas of Russia. Therefore, adequate training should become a cornerstone of the conceptual solution to inadequate organization and poor quality of primary health care.

AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the opinion of teachers at medical universities regarding the level of preparation among dental students in specialty programs in order to identify and address problematic areas requiring improvement.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A survey was conducted among 115 teachers who were responsible for training dental students in specialty programs in 17 medical universities in Russia.

RESULTS: The majority of teachers rated the theoretical training of dental students in specialty programs as either good or excellent, although this was not replicated when considering practical training. Instead, the overwhelming majority of teachers rated the practical training as good (36.52%), satisfactory (44.35%), or unsatisfactory (19.13%). The most difficult dental topics to teach were gnathology (67.83%), maxillofacial prosthetics (53.04%), oncostomatology (45.22%), gerontostomatology (36.52%), salivalogy (20.87%), dental arthrology (13.04%), and neurostomatology (13.04%). The overwhelming majority of teachers (71.3%) reported spending a lot of time on methodological work.

CONCLUSION: The current questionnaire-based study analyzed trends in teacher’s opinions regarding the quality of theoretical and practical training provided to dental students in specialty programs as well as the manual skills of students in various fields of dentistry. The most difficult topics to teach were identified, and information on what teachers considered necessary for the improvement of dental training was collected.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):253-258
pages 253-258 views


Dental treatment of patients with squamous carcinoma of the oral mucosa

Kudasova E.O., Kochurova E.V., Nikolenko V.N., Panferova O.I.


The review presents the impact of modern dental treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa on the prognosis of dental health after the end of the main antitumor treatment. The literature for the last 5 years was analyzed from the databases PubMed MedLine, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Global Health and CyberLeninka platforms, The literature sources taken for the review are indexed in the databases Scopus, Web of Science, RSCI.

The authors conducted a search for modern methods and algorithms of dental treatment for this category of patients. Indications, possible risks and frequent complications of the main types of antitumor treatment and its long-term impact on dental health in general have been identified.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):259-266
pages 259-266 views

Experimental justification for the application of different methods for oral mucosal wound closure

Tarasenko S.V., Blagushina N.A., Ershova A.M., Balgaeva S.U.


The current study analyzed Russian and foreign scientific evidence on oral mucosal regeneration published over the period between 2000 and 2020. The Central Scientific Medical Library, electronic Medical library (, and the scientific database PubMed were searched for relevant experimental studies focusing on methods used to stimulate healing of excisional wounds in the palate. The aim of the review was to identify the most effective method of oral mucosal wound closure. The findings showed that the successful introduction of new methods for oral mucosal wound closure with reliable treatment outcomes was dependent on accurate experimental, laboratory, and histological substantiation of their effectiveness.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):267-274
pages 267-274 views

History of Medicine

The history of maxillofacial surgery in Russia. Part 3

Sysolyatin P.G., Sysolyatin S.P., Voevodin N.M., Baidyk O.D.


This article is dedicated to Professor P.P. Lvov, the founder of maxillofacial surgery and dentistry in this country, and his students. Professor P.P. Lvov is a graduate of the medical faculty of Imperial Tomsk University as well as the surgical school of R.R. Vreden and F.I. Zverzhkhovsky. He is also the founder of his own scientific school along with Professors A.A. Limberg, S.F. Kosykh, L.R. Balon, V.M. Uvarov, V.N. Kartashev, N.M. Stepanov, and A.I. Ediberidze. He has authored several fundamental pieces of work on bone grafting for mandibular defects, odontogenic osteomyelitis of the jaws, ankyloses of the temporomandibular joint, and surgical treatment of congenital clefts of the palate. Additionally, he is also the Head of the Department of Dentistry at the First Leningrad Medical Institute (1923–1946), an honorable doctor of the RSFSR and, along with Prof. A.A. Limberg, the author of the first Russian Textbook of Surgical Dentistry (1938) which is very popular among students and doctors.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):275-284
pages 275-284 views


New heading of the journal: Pages of memory

Iordanishvili A.K.


BACKGROUND: Relevance. In the development of Russian dentistry, one can clearly trace the emergence and gradual formation of two independent directions that merged together only after the October Socialist Revolution. The first of them is connected with the organization and treatment of maxillofacial wounded, the second — with the organization and treatment of dental diseases. It is impossible to imagine the development of these areas without specialists who have made a unique contribution to the development of domestic and world dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. The Russian Journal of Dentistry opens a new section «Pages of Memory», which will be dedicated to prominent scientists, clinicians, organizers of dental care, as well as prominent public figures of healthcare. This section begins with materials about the life, professional activity and contribution to military and practical dentistry of academician, Colonel-General of the medical service Fyodor Ivanovich Komarov.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):285-286
pages 285-286 views

Memory pages

Dental research carried out by the scientific academician, Fyodor Ivanovich Komarov

Iordanishvili A.K.


To date, the contributions of Professor F.I. Komarov and his students to the field of dentistry are little known to a wide range of doctors and teachers in medical universities across the country.

This paper summarizes the achievements of Professor Fedor Ivanovich Komarov, an outstanding scientist and clinician, veteran of the great Patriotic war, academic at the Russian Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, Laureate of the State Prize of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, honored scientist of Russia, doctor of medical sciences, General Colonel of medical services, and a forerunner of modern medicine on the occasion of the anniversary of his 100th birthday. As head of the central military medical department of the Ministry of Defense and Vice-President of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Professor F.I. Komarov made a significant contribution to the development of medical science and practical and military health care. This paper focus on his contributions to some of the lesser-known areas of research in the field of dentistry.

Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):287-292
pages 287-292 views


Sergey Darchoyevich Arutyunov. To the 70th anniversary of his birth



Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):293-294
pages 293-294 views


Lyudmila Nikolaevna Maksimovskaya (07.07.1949 — 20.06.2021)



Russian Journal of Dentistry. 2021;25(3):295-295
pages 295-295 views

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